NEW EMISSIONS REDUCTION STANDARDS
Like all manufacturers of diesel engines, Caterpillar is required to deliver engines that meet government emissions standards that are being phased-in throughout the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan. Read below to learn more about the next level emissions reduction standards scheduled for implementation in 2011.
|A BRIEF HISTORY OF EMISSIONS REDUCTION EFFORTS|
Emissions standards have been systematically reducing levels of Particulate Matter (PM) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) since 1996, when the first standards went into effect. From Tier 1/Stage I (1996) levels to Tier 3/Stage IIIA (2006), emissions standards required an approximate 65 percent reduction in PM and a 60 percent reduction in NOx.
NEXT LEVEL EMISSIONS REDUCTION STANDARDS
The next phase of emissions standards, called Tier 4 Interim in the U.S. and Stage IIIB in the European Union, take effect in 2011. Compared to Tier 3/Stage IIIA levels, Tier 4 Interim/Stage IIIB standards require a 90 percent reduction in PM and a 50 percent decrease in NOx. Tier 4 Final/Stage IV standards, which will become effective in 2014, reduce NOx by an additional 40 percent, taking PM and NOx emissions to near-zero levels.
The chart below can give you a sense for the magnitude of the reduction in allowable emissions since 1996.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TIER 4 REGULATIONS
Q: What are U.S. EPA Tier 4 regulations and how do they compare to Tier 3/Stage IIIA?
A: In 2004 the EPA published the final rule introducing Tier 4 emission standards, which are to be phased-in over the period of 2008-2015 The Tier 4 standards require that emissions of particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) be further reduced by about 90%. Tier 4 emissions levels are similar to those required by the 2007-2010 standards for on-highway engines.
Q: When do the new regulations begin to apply?
A: As shown in the chart below, Tier 4 Interim emissions regulations will be phased in by engine power category, followed by Tier 4 Final standards. The Tier 4 engine power categories are expressed in kilowatts (kW). Tier 4 began in 2008 for all engines under (<) 19 kW, and for those greater than or equal to 19 but less than 56 kW (19 = kW < 56). For engines in the 130 = kW = 560 category, and those in the category for above 560 kW, Tier 4 Interim applies in 2011. Finally, for the 56 to 130 kW (56 = kW < 130) category, Tier 4 Interim applies in 2012. Tier 4 Final standards generally are applicable three years after the Tier 4 Interim start date.
Q: Do Tier 4 regulations only impact the US?
A: Similar regulations will impact the European Union and likely Canada and Japan. In the EU the regulations are called Stage IIIB/IV; in Japan they are called Step 4. Neither Japan nor Canada have completed adoption of Tier 4/Step 4, but we expect them to do so in the near future. In the EU the regulations do not apply to engines <19kw or engines >560kW at this time and we expect Japan to be the same as the EU. The regulation in Canada is expected to be essentially identical to the U.S. regulation.
Q: What is Tier 4 Interim vs. Tier 4 Final (Stage IIIB/Stage IV)?
A: Tier 4 Interim regulations begin in 2011 for most power categories and Tier 4 Final is phased beginning in 2014. Tier 4 Interim is intended to enable a gradual phase in to final regulations for manufacturers. Tier 4 Final regulations require additional reductions in NOx. Alternative phase-in periods from Interim to Final are intended to provide time to transfer technology from highway engines to non-road engines
Q: How will Tier 4 Interim/Stage IIIB machines change to Tier 4 Final/Stage IV machines?
A: Tier 4 Interim machine engines will require an additional 50% reduction in NOx emissions at Tier 4 Final. Caterpillar is researching and developing additional NOx reduction technologies, above and beyond technology currently planned for Tier 4 Interim, to meet this emissions regulation.
Q: What is the Caterpillar direction for Tier 4 Interim/Stage IIIB technology?
A: Caterpillar will build on the proven success of ACERT® Technology. ACERT is an integrated systems solution of flexible technologies. Additional building block technologies, including aftertreatment devices, will be added and used on an as-needed basis, by application, to provide maximum customer value.
Q: Will Cat products for Tier 4 Final/Stage IV utilize SCR?
A: SCR is amongst the technologies we are considering for Tier 4 Final. SCR, or any other technology included in our Tier 4 Final solution, will be built upon our Tier 4 Interim solution and investment in advanced air systems, fuel systems, and aftertreatment. Our solutions will be tailored to meet emissions requirements with the best customer value for the given application.
Q: Explain Caterpillar's field test procedures prior to introduction?
A: Tier 4 validation plans include testing installations at our proving grounds, prototype machine installations, and customer pilot installations prior to first production. Total prototype and pilot machine engine hours accumulated in validating machine models with 4-32 liter engines will exceed 1 million hours of operation. Each phase of this validation plan is sequenced to enable Caterpillar time to address any and all issues prior to the next phase.
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